Day of knowledge, or the word of the schoolboy
That ended for the children of the world (or almost all) carefree time of fun summer holiday, and with the warm summer rays of the sun disappeared one more drop of childhood. Again, it is necessary to collect briefcases, books, notebooks, pens, pencils. When I was little, it is not terribly fond of this day – September 1, the day of, or knowledge. (I think I was not a one). But when he was a student (oh golden student days, where are you?), On the contrary, I could not wait for September 1st. Certainly not because of the insatiable thirst for knowledge, not at all. Because it was such a great opportunity to meet with their student friends, go for a pair, and then for beer. But as the day met the knowledge of our ancestors, that if you take a time machine and go with her help through the centuries. What were school pupils, students, teachers, textbooks, in ancient times?
The first schools were a long time ago, at the very dawn of human civilization. You could even say that schools were a fixture of civilization as such. If there is any where any school, hence there is any civilization or, if not, then I’m sorry, no school and no smell of civilization. Since ancient civilization – (those that are known stories) Egyptian, then the first school lessons, teachers and pupils have been here, in the shadow of the famous pyramids and the Sphinx.
The school tradition of ancient Egypt is much deeper and richer than even modern school tradition since formed and evolved over several thousand years. Of course the simple Egyptians, as a rule, schooling is not shining, because the ground processing, crocodiles in the Nile can catch without much education. Learn there could only noble Egyptian youths every golden Egyptian youth: the children of Pharaoh and his family, the children of priests and high-ranking officials, or those who really wanted to learn. (More thirst for knowledge, as in our time, it was necessary to prove the entrance exam) Another almost forgot, most schools of antiquity (in contrast to the present) in schools attended only by men, the main is a function of women for centuries was that, to cook a meal, to have children and to love their husbands.
Ancient Egyptian schools were at the temples, the Egyptian priests were teachers who taught the young Egyptian students from many different sciences of anatomy (which included in particular the subtleties of mummification) to astrology and astronomy. Perhaps they were even teaching physics or chemistry online, although the Internet instead of the ancient Egyptians used something else. Why I am strongly convinced that the knowledge of the ancient Egyptian priests were significantly superior knowledge even modern scholars. Students record their training, students of ancient Egypt were on papyrus, and when entering and leaving school (as well as in our time) exams. Exams these were very interesting, as it is in the case describe them in a separate article (where to start a series of articles about ancient Egypt, and it will). Another of the essential attributes of learning in the Egyptian school was dedication to students in theatrical religious mysteries.
From Egypt, the civilization, and with it, the school moved to Greece. The first school in ancient Greece was established well-known philosopher and scientist Pythagoras and named in his honor – the Pythagorean School. Mr. Pythagoras in his teenage years traveled extensively in search of wisdom and knowledge, in particular, was in Egypt, and was just as today’s traveler, who arrived to see pyramid, and was trained in the Egyptian temple (school). Students, he was diligent and that what learned in Egypt was successfully exported to Greece by establishing a Pythagorean school of the Egyptian style. Well, after the necessary social institution such as a school spread throughout Greece, and later Rome (which is copied all over the Greek culture), and in general of the Roman Empire.
A little away is the school institution, which were the ancient Celts. The civilization of the ancient Celts is one of the greatest mysteries of history. The fact that the ancient Celts had no written language (it was not), and the schools were. And civilization was. But what about the poor guy studied Celtic students without writing? Yes, just had a cool memory and learning. It is now we all do not remember anything, but Celtic held the students in his head the huge volumes (gigabytes) of information, because all knowledge was passed only in oral form. The process of the training could go 20-30 years (as they say “Live and learn”). So that.
With the decline of ancient culture, and there was a decline of education and the institution of school was completely leveled. No wonder these times called “dark ages.” Indeed Ages were dark (for “Teaching of Light”) schools were not, there was no education, and everything – from a simple peasant to the king polls were illiterate. Even one of the greatest kings of the early Middle Ages, the first emperor of Western Europe, the French king Charlemagne on documents instead of the signature set cross. Institute of Education and the school was preserved only in a Christian monastery, and the monks were the only educated and literate people of the Middle Ages.
Medieval convent school.
The Catholic Church has long tried to keep that monopoly, keeping people in the dark of ignorance and those who too sought to knowledge (and therefore wanted to be smart and clever hard to manage) the risk of being declared a heretic and end his life at the stake (as Giordano Bruno ).
The big breakthrough for the development of education was the invention of printing, and the famous traveler Marco Polo brought from China such unknown then Europe as a piece of paper. Books began to appear, which is becoming cheaper and more accessible. And over time, we began to establish schools, more and more schools, first at the church, and then the secular.
Already around here to the school first started to let the ladies, who first studied separately from the boys (there are different institutes of noble maidens). And then together. And so schools have reached our time, become what we all know them. I wonder what will be the school in the distant future.
The school of the 21st century on the proposal of the French artist Marc Coté. Knowledge of students is automatically pumped to the brain, or as they say: “Flash card is, do not mind”